Diversity: Evolution's Problem

The theory of evolution posits that all organisms on Earth have "their origin in other preexisting types and that the distinguishable differences are due to modifications in successive generations."1 The causal mechanism by which the process of evolution is suggested to operate is natural selection. Natural selection is the "process that results in the adaptation of an organism to its environment by means of selectively reproducing changes in its genotype, or genetic constitution."2 Alternatively stated, environmental forces favor features to be continued or features to be eliminated.

Conceptually, this operation of external forces selecting favorable traits for continuance operates at all levels of the organism from the molecular to the physiological. Early evolution theorists were focused on physiological traits like the length of giraffe's necks or the shape of bird's beaks; the popular understanding of evolution is still in this mindset. However, for decades, modern evolution theorists have focused on the process as acting upon a single gene or expression of a gene. Either way, the fundamental principle is similar and can be illustrated by the figure below.

However, the conclusion that the process of natural selection creates diversity is erroneous and misleading. The obvious objection is that the process of natural selection assumes a situation in which diversity already exists! Whether genes, traits or organisms are under consideration, multiple types must already be in existence in order for one to be favored over another. Stated otherwise, in order for evolutionary processes to pick the genetic winner, there must be a list of contestants from which to choose. The figure on page 296 reflects this truth. Imagine no diversity existed in the example population at Time 1 (i.e., the only member was the trait represented by the letter "A"). How would a process that favors one trait for survival logically be considered to operate when only one trait existed?

Some population of traits, or animals, or genes (represented by the letters A, B, C and D) exists at "Time 1." Forces in the environment act on this population, favoring some members for continuance and selecting some for extinction - the process of natural selection. Over time only those favored traits, or animals, or genes continue and are left in existence at "Time 2." Evolution concludes, "the virtually infinite variations on life are the fruit of the evolutionary process."
Evolution (2009) Encyclopedia Britannica

The implication of natural selection's necessity of an existing diverse population is that it is a process of reduction, not diversification. As formulated, natural selection takes diversity and brings about uniformity. The corner-stone of the theory of evolution is a causal process that takes diversity and reduces it. It is a causal mechanism that is at complete variance with any attempts to suggest evolution brings about diversity. Returning to our example, at Time 1 the population is composed of four different types of members (A, B, C and D). At Time 2 there are fewer and there is not a logical way around this process if some members are favored and some are not.

The proposed process of natural selection cannot create the diversity it recognizes to existit can only reduce it. This is demonstrated in the classic textbook evolution example of the peppered moth in England. The moth ranged in color from white to dark. With the rise of industrial pollution from coal, the white moths disappeared only to be replaced by the dark moths, as predators could not see the dark ones as well against the soot-covered landscape. Evolutionists cite this as evidence of natural selection where the environment favored one trait (a dark color). However, this event is a demonstration that the process did not create the existing diversity of colors among the moths, nor result in even more moth colors, but rather represented a simple reduction in the existing diversity.

Evolution cannot give a reason for all the diverse forms of life on this earth. The diversity and variety of plants and animals in the world had to be supplied. Examining the world we see the great and purposeful hand of God in every grass, tree and the abundant moving creatures that is His creation.

Josh Vest, Bastrop, TX

1 Evolution. (2009) Encyclopædia Britannica
2 Natural Selection. (2009) Encyclopædia Britannica